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Stanislav Nazarov
Stanislav Nazarov

Women With 2 Vaginas _TOP_



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women with 2 vaginas


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But she didn't learn what was different until her early 20s, when she sought an abortion and clinicians couldn't find the embryo. When they did, revealing another reproductive system, "it felt good knowing what was wrong with me," she said.


Her condition, uterus didelphys, affects about 1 in 3,000 women worldwide. Reproductive "anamolies" like it can manifest in many ways since the reproductive tract forms from two groups of cells on each side of the body, Dr. Stephanie Ros, an OB-GYN at the University of South Florida, told Insider.


Ros said she knows of one patient who was mistakenly told she wasn't in labor because the clinician checked for dilation in the wrong cervix. Other women don't even know about their double anatomy until they're in labor.


So Evelyn rested a lot and had two doctor appointments a week. Her bump grew, but off to one side. "I think there's a lot of pressure on women to love [pregnancy] out of guilt of not being appreciative of falling pregnant when some people can't," she said. "But I didn't like it at all."


Background: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is spread mainly through respiratory droplets or direct contact. However, the infection condition of the genital system is unknown. Our aim in this study was to determine if SARS-CoV-2 is present in the vaginal fluid of women with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).


Methods: Ten women with confirmed severe COVID-19 pneumonia admitted to the Tongji Zhongfa Hospital intensive care unit from 4 February 2020 through 24 February 2020 were included. Clinical records, laboratory results, and computed tomography examinations were retrospectively reviewed. The potential for genital infection was accessed by testing for the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in vaginal fluids obtained from vaginal swab samples. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction was used to confirm the SARS-CoV-2 infection in vaginal fluids.


Results: The clinical characteristics of the 10 women were similar to those reported in other severe COVID-19 patients. All 10 patients were tested for SARS-CoV-2 in vaginal fluid, and all samples tested negative for the virus.


Rose said when she was 21 weeks pregnant, she was rushed to the hospital for the cervix surgery that would lead to the discovery of her two vaginas. The doctors reportedly removed the septum, leaving just one vagina.


You will not have a miscarriage just because you have a double uterus. However, your chance of miscarriage is slightly higher. This is because your uterus is smaller, which restricts the growth of the fetus. The atypical shape can also affect the placenta and the blood flow within your uterus. If you have repeat late second trimester miscarriages, your healthcare provider may suggest surgery to fix your double uterus. Surgical treatment may increase your chances for a full-term pregnancy.


Overall, the vaginal microbiome of most women remained relatively stable throughout the menstrual cycle, with little variation in diversity and only modest fluctuations in species richness. Microbiomes between women were more different than were those collected consecutively from individual women. Clustering of microbial profiles revealed the expected groupings dominated by Lactobacillus crispatus, Lactobacillus iners, and Lactobacillus jensenii. Interestingly, two additional clusters were dominated by either Bifidobacterium breve or a heterogeneous mixture of nonlactobacilli. Direct G. vaginalis quantification correlated strongly with its pyrosequencing-read abundance, and Mollicutes, including Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma parvum, and Ureaplasma urealyticum, were detected in most samples.


Our cpn 60-based investigation of the vaginal microbiome demonstrated that in healthy women most vaginal microbiomes remained stable through their menstrual cycle. Of interest in these findings was the presence of Bifidobacteriales beyond just Gardnerella species. Bifidobacteriales are frequently underrepresented in 16S rRNA gene-based studies, and their detection by cpn 60-based investigation suggests that their significance in the vaginal community may be underappreciated.


Our understanding of the vaginal microbiota to date had been predominantly shaped by culture-based or 16S rRNA gene culture-independent studies. Although both approaches contribute a wealth of information on the microbiota composition, they have limitations. The move to culture-independent studies was spurred by the labor-intensive methodologies associated with bacteriologic culture (impractical for large studies), and limited ability to grow the diverse array of organisms present, as well as substantial difficulty in accurate determination of relative abundance. 16S rRNA gene-based methods have overcome some of the limits of culture, but are known to have amplification biases and offer limited resolution for some taxa[26]. Alternative molecular targets, like the universal cpn 60 gene[27], have been used to gain a different perspective of microbial communities in a culture-independent fashion.


The primary objective of this study was to characterize the vaginal microbiome over a natural menstrual cycle among a cohort of healthy, asymptomatic, Canadian women, by using the cpn 60 gene target. Secondarily, we aimed to probe for Mollicutes and Bifidobacteria not well detected by other high-throughput sequencing methods, and to better understand the temporal stability and/or variation of the vaginal microbiome within individual women.


Healthy reproductive-aged women were recruited from two cohorts of participants in Phase-III clinical trials of HPV vaccines, a private Obstetrics and Gynecology practice, and through online and print advertisements placed in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. After obtaining informed consent, basic demographic and clinical data were collected by history and from clinical records. While conducting routine speculum examination (usually for pap smear screening), clinicians used a Dacron swab (Copan Diagnostics Inc., Murrieta, CA, USA) to sample the posterior fornix and lateral vaginal wall. This sample represented the first of the four samples collected through the menstrual cycle from charts. All participants were provided with diaries to log activities including sexual activity and any interval symptoms. They were also provided with self-collection kits that contained sterile flocked swabs designed with a break point on the handle (Puritan Medical Products Company LLC, Guilford, ME, USA), collection tubes containing 200 μl of DNAzol-Direct reagent (MRCGENE, Cincinnati, OH, USA) and detailed collection instructions. After hand washing, women were instructed to insert the swab into their vaginas to the half-way point on the handle, rotate the swab 3 times, remove the swab and place it into the provided collection tube, break off the handle, leaving the swab head in the reagent tube, and close and date the tube.


Samples were stored at ambient temperatures until all three self-collected samples were acquired at 1-week intervals. This self-sampling method was duplicative of previous study methods used by ourselves and colleagues in which we validated the high quality of self-sampling compared with clinician sampling[35, 36].


At the end of the collection period, participants returned samples and met with study staff to review their diaries and complete a final interview, in return for a modest honorarium ($20 CAD). All samples were de-identified, and by using information from participants assigned to a menstrual phase by using a calendar-based method: menstrual, day 1 (onset of menstruation) to cessation of bleeding (day 4 to 7); follicular, cessation of bleeding to day 12; periovulatory, day 13 to day 16; luteal, day 17 to days 26 to 32 (commencement of bleeding). If two samples were collected within the luteal phase, they were numbered sequentially as luteal-I and luteal-II. DNAzol-containing nucleic acid was separated from the swab head by centrifugation in the laboratory and used directly as template for PCR reactions.


Samples were evaluated for nucleic acid integrity by quantification of the human cytochrome C oxidase subunit 1 (cox 1) gene and bacterial 16S rRNA gene (V3 region) with SYBR Green assays, as described previously[37]. Gardnerella vaginalis was quantified with primers[38] and SYBR Green assay conditions[39] determined previously. The presence of Mollicutes (Mycoplasma or Ureaplasma) was determined by targeting the 16S rRNA gene by using a conventional, semi-nested PCR[40], and Ureaplasma spp. were detected by specific PCR for the multiple-banded antigen gene[41].


Beta diversity (ecologic distance) was calculated as the average pair-wise distances from the 100 bootstrapped datasets at 1,000 reads per sample. We compared ecologic distances of samples within subjects with those between by comparing all within-subject pair-wise distances with all between-subject pair-wise distances by using ANOVA. In addition, we compared all pair-wise distances within menstrual phases pooled (that is, all within menstrual, and all within follicular, all within periovulatory, and all within luteal) with all between-phase distances (again pooled) by using ANOVA. These analyses do not take into account multiple samples per subject, as they are based on pair-wise distances among samples; they should therefore be considered exploratory. 350c69d7ab


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